A baluster-shaped bronze vase with a small rolled mouthrim. The dark brown bronze has been patinated in order to achieve a beautiful finish. The surface of the vase is covered with extra-ordinary green, brown, black and golden stains, giving it a beautiful appearance.
Different alloys are used in order to obtain the desired colour combination. The principal ones among them are gold, silver, copper, brass, iron, shibuichi and shakudo. There are no less than seventy different alloys for bronze, of which about thirty are more or less commonly used in Japan at the present time. Shibuichi is composed of copper and silver in varying proportions, so as to get the desired shade. In order to make a darker shibuichi called kuro-shibuichi, to three or four parts of silver ten of shakudo are used. Shakudo is obtained by combining one hundreds parts of copper with from three to six of gold according to the shade required. To get a violet shakudo, sulphate of copper, salt and water are used. Over the centuries, Japan had developed a number of special alloys which could be patinated using naturally-derived acids and pickling solutions to produce an extraordinary range of beautiful finishes.