18 karat gold, ivory, ruby, diamond and plique-a-jour enamel Art Nouveau brooch, depicting Demeter (the Greek goddess of harvest).
The white ivory female face is set against a pink and green background of waving wheat. The reverse side of the brooch shows the back of her head against a white background of plique-a-jour enamel.
This brooch bears the makers mark of Joseph Bernard Citroen. The company of Citroen founded in 1833 is still in existence today. Citroen was the first internationally oriented jewellery company in the Netherlands. From 1866 onward they also imported and manufactured jewellery and silver in Pforzheim (Germany) and Hanau.
Based on the two Dutch hallmarks this brooch must have been produced between 1891 and 1905:
Lion facing left (NN008) for 18K gold as used between 1814 and 1905
Maker's mark J5C Firma Joseph Bernard Citroen Amsterdam 1891-1970
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